Determinación de índices de cosecha y calidad en kiwi en el sudeste bonaerense (Argentina)
Assessment of harvest and quality indexes in kiwifruit production at the South-East of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina)
Carlos Godoy, Claudia Domé, Cristina Monti.
Pág. 53-72.descarga_pdf

RESUMEN

Se realizó un seguimiento de la maduración de kiwis (Actinidia celiciosa (A. Chev.) Liang et Ferguson cv. Hayward) en una plantación comercial del sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina), con la finalidad de definir índices de madurez y calidad y compararlos con los estándares vigentes en Nueva Zelanda y Chile. A intervalo semanal, desde las 13 semanas después de plena floración, se tomaron muestras de frutos para evaluar las siguientes variables: peso fresco, volumen, porcentaje de semillas negras, contenido de materia seca, acidez titulable y pH. De acuerdo con los mismos, el valor mínimo de sólidos solubles y el porcentaje de semillas negras exigido se alcanzaron durante la semana 21 después de plena floración y la firmeza de pulpa presentaba aún valores superiores al umbral recomendado. El momento óptimo de cosecha correspondió a plena temporada. Los resultados sugieren que la acidez titulable podría constituir otro índice de madurez. El porcentaje de materia seca no sería útil en fruta de plena temporada dado que los incrementos significativos se registran tempranamente. Sin embargo, puede ser útil como índice de calidad. Se plantea la posibilidad de utilizar la relación MS/AT como índice de calidad y de cosecha.

ABSTRACT

Ripening of kiwifruit (Actinidia celiciosa (A. Chev.) Liang et Ferguson cv. Hayward) (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) was studied at an orchard located at the south-east of Buenos Aires province in Argentina with the aim of developing ripening and quality indexes and compare them to current standards used in New Zealand and Chile kiwifruit industries.Fruit samples were taken weekly, starting from 13 weeks after full bloom, in order to test the following variables: fresh weight, fruit volume, black seeds percentage, dry matter content, titratable acidity, and pH. Soluble solids content and black seeds percentage thresholds were attained during week 21 after full bloom. At this time, flesh firmness was still higher than the threshold value. Optimum harvest time took place during the season's main harvest time. Results suggest that titratable acidity, which steadily increased during ripening, may be useful for indicating ripeness. Dry matter content may not be useful as a ripening index for main harvest fruit; because significant in-creases in this variable took place very early. However, dry matter content may still be useful as a quality index. The relationship between dry matter content and titratable acidity is proposed as a quality-harvest index.descarga_pdf

 
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